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A vacuum jacketed dewar has a dust cap over the outlet of the neck tube for preventing atmospheric moisture to plug into the liquid product inside. A dewar is considered as a non-pressurized container, which has capacity ranging from 5 to 200 liter. Product in small-sized dewars can be transferred by pouring to another containers, while pressurization tube is needed for the transfer of liquid product in dewars with capacity of 50 litre or more.


A typical liquid cylinder is an insulated vacuum-jacketed container. Safety relief valves and rupture discs protect the liquid cylinder from pressure build-up. Liquid cylinders normally operate at pressure up to 250 psig, and have capacity varying from 100 litre to 200 litre. Liquid product can be transferred to gaseous phase by passing through vaporizing coil.


A liquid storage tank can be installed in fixed location as a stationary vessel, or mounted on a road tanker for the delivery of liquid product. Typical tank size ranges from 4,000 to 30,000 litre. The tank has a double-walled structure, where the space between the inner container and the outer casing is vacuumed and filled with thermal insulation (such as perlite powder) to protect heat transfer from outside. Safety relief valves are equipped for protecting the tank from pressure build-up. Standard tanks are designed under standardized specifications such as American Society of Mechanical Engineering (ASME).


A filter is used to trap unwanted particles possibly existing in gas stream such that they do not reach the point-of-use of the gas. Membrane and ceramic type filters have a 100% filtration efficiency, and can remove particles having a size of 0.01 micron.

The lifespan of filters varies with particle size, particle density in the gas stream, operating duty cycle, etc. When the pressure drop between upstream to downstream across a filter increases by 50%, the filter is becoming clogged with particles and should be replaced.


Regulators are used in gas systems to reduce the pressure from a high pressure source to a safe working pressure for use. A pressure regulator should always be used when positive control of the pressure in a gas stream is required.

There are two basic types of pressure regulators: single stage type and dual stage type. Almost of pressure regulators are fitted with two gauges for monitoring pressure, i.e., one for the inlet pressure and the other for the outlet pressure.


Ultra high purity gases or specialty gases (standard mixed gases, chemical gases, electronic gases) are distributed by cylinders under pressure.

All cylinders are identified by color code for the type of gas contained inside, and equipped with specific valves for outlet connections such as the standard by Compressed Gas Association (CGA).


A manifolds permits the connection of several cylinders to a common gas supply line providing a larger continuous supply of gas.

Two basic configurations are available to allow the user to make the most of the allotted space for the system. These two configurations are known as single row and double row. A single row configuration has a structure that all of the connections to the manifold is accomplished in a continuous straight line, while a double row configuration works with two rows of cylinders with a common line running between the two rows.


A vaporizer is made from aluminium and used to transform gas in liquid phase to gaseous phase by exchanging the heat in the air at ambient temperature to the liquefied gas. The size of vaporizer is selected based on the gas consumption.


A pack is a number of cylinders grouped and connected together as a single unit. Typical pack compiles 20 cylinders. Packs are normally used in limited working space, while they also reduce the cost of transportation and are convenient to conect with manifold when filling gas.

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